first_imgThe research section of Letterkenny’s Central Library is to reopen after it was damaged in a flood.Cllr Jimmy KavanaghThe second floor of the building at Lower Main Street, is to reopen to the public on Friday, September 26thIt will be open as follows from that date: Wednesday 10:30 am – 1pm and 2pm-5:30pmFriday 10:30 am -1pm and 2pm-5:30pmThe move has been welcomed by Councillor Kavanagh  who said: “This is welcome news for the users of this section of the library, which has been closed due to flooding and renovation.“The council is also in the process of recruiting staff from within the organisation to the library service, to bring staffing up to required levels in the central library. When this process is complete, full opening hours will be restored at the research section. “I look forward to that happening and in the meantime I welcome the progress that is being made in reopening the facility, on Wednesdays and Fridays from the end of the month.” LIBRARY RESEARCH SECTION RE-OPENS AFTER FLOOD was last modified: September 13th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Cllr Jimmy Kavanaghdonegalletterkennylibrarylast_img read more

first_img(Visited 42 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The living cell contains thousands of molecular machines converting energy into useful work. Here are just a few that were recently described in journal papers.Any given week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), one is likely to find at least a dozen papers about molecular machines in the cell. Papers about biochemistry usually outnumber those in any other field of science. As imaging techniques continue to improve, the study of cellular machines has thrived, giving scientists better looks at the workings of the cell at higher magnification and finer resolution. This trend shows no sign of stopping.Those who have seen the film Unlocking the Mystery of Life remember the bacterial flagellum—an outboard motor. They may also remember Jed Macosko saying that a cell has “thousands of machines.” Some of the better-known ones, like the rotary engine ATP synthase and the tightrope-walking dynein, may also be familiar. Let’s take a look at samples from this last week’s catalog of machines discussed in one journal, PNAS, to get a taste of the variety of equipment keeping every cell in operation.The peroxide sensor (PNAS): Hydrogen peroxide, a powerful oxidant, can damage cells. Some types of bacteria have a special machine, OxyR, with four large domains, that sense H2O2 molecules. When a peroxide molecule is captured, one domain of the machine undergoes a “large conformational change” that triggers the regulatory domains into action.Peroxisome splitter (PNAS): Peroxides, along other reactive oxygen species and long-chain fatty acids are disposed of in a molecular furnace called the peroxisome. This organelle, containing enzymes involved in many metabolic processes, is duplicated by fission, similar to cell division. A molecular scissors named Peroxin 11 is responsible for initiation of the process; the researchers discovered that it is also important for the final step, scission, producing the two daughter organelles. Interestingly, this machine is “conserved” [unevolved] from yeast to mammalians.”The shape shifter (PNAS): These authors introduce their machine by saying, “Cells constantly sense and respond to mechanical signals by reorganizing their actin cytoskeleton.” They describe how a force applied to the cell membrane triggers a burst of calcium ions that, in turn, triggers actin molecules around the nucleus to reorganize the skeleton. The actin filaments form a “perinuclear rim” that “may function as a kinetic barrier to protect genome integrity until cellular homeostasis is reestablished.”The volume control (PNAS): This machine is right in the back of your eyeballs. Retina pigment cells must control their volume; how do they do it? There’s a volume-activated anion channel (VRAC) able to respond to swelling by opening its gates to let out excess ions. When this machine breaks because of mutations, macular dystrophy can result.Powerstroke of the walker (PNAS): This paper says, “Kinesin molecular motors couple ATP turnover to force production to generate microtubule-based movement and microtubule dynamics.” The authors discuss kinesin-14 from fruit flies, and show how its conversion of ATP to motion during the powerstroke is more complicated than thought. Then they say, “These findings are significant because they reveal that the key principles for force generation by kinesin-14s are conserved [i.e., unevolved] from yeast to higher eukaryotes.”The thermostat (PNAS): A machine call DesK responds to temperature changes (“essential to cell survival”) by triggering a reversible “zipper” mechanism. In bacterial cells, the transmembrane machine switches its shape if the temperature rises on the outside, triggering additional motions on the inside that can switch on other machines that induce other molecular responses. “The reversible formation of a serine zipper represents a novel mechanism by which membrane-embedded sensors may detect and transmit signals.”The tightrope walker (PNAS): The two-legged robot dynein walks on tightropes of microtubules, carrying cargo around the cell. Its feet (actually called “heads” by biochemists) have to be able to attach to the microtubules, but can switch from one rope to another as they move. This team investigated what happens when tension is applied to the machine. They dynein will slide if applied in one direction, but fasten more firmly in the other direction. This response is regulated by four additional machines (AAA1-4) that each use ATP as well.The emergency squad (PNAS): One of the worst emergencies in a cell is when both strands of a DNA double helix snap; it can trigger death of the cell or serious malfunction, leading to disease or cancer. Cosmic rays, chemicals or failures in normal cell processes like transcription can cause double-stranded breaks. Fortunately, there’s an emergency response team named NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) that knows what to do. The researchers used super-resolution microscopy to watch the team build long filaments at either side of the break as one step in the repair process.A machine is a device that converts energy into work—not just any work, but directed, useful, functional work. The authors of these and many other papers have no hesitation calling these proteins “machines” and “motors.” Scientists have known about enzymes and proteins for well over a century, but understanding that cells operate with actual machines only dates back about 20 years or so. This revelation—that life operates by thousands of tiny mechanical devices—surely deserves to be called one of the most astounding discoveries in the history of science.One might compare this discovery to zooming in on what happens when a building is built. Perhaps you’ve watched one of those time-lapse films of a construction project. From a distance, you see just the major features taking shape. If you had never seen such a process before, you might assume this is “just what happens” from time to time. Then, as you are given a series of telescopes with higher and higher resolution, with the ability to stop individual frames of the sequence, the true picture becomes increasingly clear. You find hundreds of people down there operating cranes, bulldozers, ropes, pulleys, ramps and trucks. As you zoom in closer, you see them working in squads, communicating with phones, shaking hands, pointing and responding to each other’s actions. Undoubtedly, your appreciation of what’s involved in construction of a building would grow dramatically.Now shrink that down a billion-fold. Since the first humans opened their eyes and beheld the living world, there was plenty to show design. But we were like the viewer of the construction project from miles away, unaware of the actual way things work. People understood their bodies and the actions of animals or growth of plants at a macro level only: the running of a deer through a forest, the joy of eating good food and the necessity of disposing of waste, the act of sex and the birth of a child. When layers inside the body became exposed on the hunt, or through injury, a little more of the complexity would be apparent. But without detailed knowledge of what makes a heart beat, or what a liver or kidney actually does, these still might be taken for granted. Except for occasional insights from classical scholars like Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen, the history of modern medicine and physiology only goes back a few centuries out of the thousands of years man has existed. Modern science starting the zoom-in view on the construction view. Leeuwenhoek opened the world’s eyes to the microbial world; he was astonished to see some of them dancing about with elegant motions.Fast-forward to about 1995 to the present. We are privileged to live in an age of unprecedented discovery, where our view has zoomed in to the range of billionths of a meter. What did we find? Just fluids jostling about, undergoing chemical reactions? No! A thousand times no! We found machines at work in factories, interacting with incredible efficiency. We found libraries of digital code. We found machines reading the code, translating it, and converting it into other machines. We found thermostats, walking robots, rotary engines, emergency response squads, and long-distance communication networks. We found temperature sensors, volume sensors, disposal services, packaging services, and defense systems. Sex was no longer the transfer of a featureless fluid from the male to the female, but a process of unbelievable complexity involving swimming robots carrying gigabytes of information to be joined to a very complex egg cell with more gigabytes of information, triggering a cascade of machines building machines all the way to a complete baby. The growth of a seedling into a plant is no longer to be shrugged off as something that happens from time to time in nature, but a complex interplay of hormones triggering changes to thousands of molecular machines in plant cells. It’s a planet of machinery! Look around and consider how every living organism, from the worm in the soil, to the bee pollinating a flower, to the hummingbird in the garden, to the tree growing higher and higher in your back yard, operates through the action of thousands of molecular machines that we have begun to understand only in the last tenth of 1% of recorded human history.If the wonder of what we have discovered doesn’t make you shout “Praise the Lord!” as never before, you might be asleep or dead.Tragically, praise has been the last thing on the minds of many scientists studying these things. A century and a half of Darwinian dogma has blinded their minds to the obvious inference to intelligent design from molecular machines. We find, however, some curious things in these papers. One is the frequent use of “remarkable” by the authors when they uncover something wonderful. Another is the increasing silence about Darwinism as more details come to light. (There’s an inverse relationship between the frequency of evolution-words to the amount of detail in scientific papers about molecular machines.) A third curious thing is biomimetics: i.e., how cellular machines inspire thoughts of copying those designs for human applications. Together, these curiosities in PNAS and other journals hint that the consciences of evolutionary biologists are not completely dead. A flicker of the design inference still burns and may catch fire some day. When it does, it could burn away the Darwinian chaff, liberate philosophy to once again celebrate natural design as real and pervasive, and provide rational grounds for people of understanding in academia to shout unrestrained, “Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised!“Any of us can be ahead of our time and do that right now.last_img read more

first_img{loadposition tc}Click on a thumbnail for a low-resolution image, or right-click on the link below it to download a high-resolution copy of the image.» Download South Africa at Work contact sheet (1.5MB) » Download full image library contact sheet (10.5MB) KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Ceramic artist Sharon Tlou at work in the studio of Ardmore Ceramics. Photo: Hannelie Coetzee, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Sculptor Nomandla Phyllis Nodola at work in the studio of Ardmore Ceramics. Photo: Hannelie Coetzee, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Master potter Lovemore Sithole at work in the studio of Ardmore Ceramics. Photo: Hannelie Coetzee, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands:Siyabonga Mabaso, an artist at Ardmore Ceramics.Photo: Hannelie CoetzeeMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Sharon Tlou, a painter at Ardmore Ceramics.Photo: Hannelie CoetzeeMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Lovemore Sithole, a master potter at Ardmore Ceramics.Photo: Hannelie CoetzeeMediaClubSouthAfrica.com» Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Potter at work at Ardmore Ceramics.Photo: Hannelie CoetzeeMediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Eunice Madlala at work in the dairy at Swissland Cheese Farm. Photo: Hannelie Coetzee, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image KwaZulu-Natal Midlands: Eunice Madlala at work in the dairy at Swissland Cheese Farm. Photo: Hannelie Coetzee, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com » Download high-res image SOUTH AFRICA AT WORK 7: {loadposition saatwork}Having trouble downloading high-resolution images? Queries about the image library? Email Janine Erasmus at janinee@mediaclubsouthafrica.com.last_img read more

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The road to National FFA Office is as high-stakes as one would imagine. OCJ FFA Reporter Meredith Oglesby sits down with Ohio’s National FFA Officer candidate, Kolesen McCoy to talk about his journey to National Office.last_img

first_imgTwo children died in a stampede during ‘Chhath puja’ (offering to the sun god) late on Saturday in Bihar’s Aurangabad district.The incident happened near the Sun temple in Deo area of the district where a large number of devotees had gathered to perform the puja to the setting sun.The district officials said the incident happened when the devotees were returning after observing the religious ritual.Sun temple at Deo in Aurangabad district is famous for ‘Chhath puja’ congregation.The deceased children have been identified as Prince Kumar, 4, and a seven-year-old girl from Bihta of Patna district.District Magistrate Rahul Ranjan Mahiwal and Superintendent of Police Deepak Barnwal said the incident happened as an unexpected number of devotees had gathered at the temple and this led to a stampede.The officials met the family members of the children and said an ex gratia amount would be given to them.The four-day ‘Chhath puja’ ended on Sunday morning after devotees offered obeisance to the rising sun.last_img read more

first_imgNEW YORK — After a sensational start, the New York Mets made four errors April 26 and reverted back to the shoddy brand of baseball that’s led to six straight losing seasons.That it came in prime time on national television under the bright lights of Yankee Stadium only made it more embarrassing.Alex Rodriguez hit his 659th home run to move within one of Willie Mays for fourth place on baseball’s career list, and the New York Yankees took advantage of several blunders by the suddenly sloppy Mets in a 6-4 victory.“Today wasn’t pretty. It was, obviously, the worst game by far that we’ve played,” outfielder Michael Cuddyer said. “When you make as many mistakes as we did today, you’re not going to beat good teams.”Curtis Granderson hit a leadoff homer for the Mets, and slumping Daniel Murphy had a pair of RBI doubles off starter Nathan Eovaldi.But an error by Murphy at second base set up the Yankees’ sixth run, and Rodriguez was handed an RBI on the next play when shortstop Wilmer Flores fired high into the photographer’s well behind first base, squandering what should have been a simple double play.In the next inning, Eric Campbell forgot how many outs there were and was easily doubled off first base on a routine fly to right.“Bonehead play,” he said. “It’s not on any coach. You’ve always got to know the number of outs. I just made a mistake.”Campbell also committed an error at third base, and Cuddyer made one in left field that cost the Mets a run. It was an uncharacteristic performance this season by a surprising team that owns the best record in the majors at 14-5.“In a game like this, you can’t make those mistakes,” Manager Terry Collins said. “Just a bad night for us.”After falling behind early, the Yankees scored four times in the second and took two of three in the first Subway Series of the season. The crosstown rivals meet again at Citi Field in September.“We’re going to bounce back from this,” Mets starter Jonathon Niese said. “You can’t look into it too deeply.”Rodriguez connected in the first inning. He drove a 2-2 curve from Niese (2-1) to right-center, with the ball bouncing off the top of the fence and over for an opposite-field solo shot.It was the fifth homer of the season for A-Rod, who sat out last year while serving a drug suspension.“Willie was my father’s favorite player. I remember hearing about Willie Mays and Mickey Mantle all the time. He’s one of my heroes,” Rodriguez said.A-Rod’s first chance to match Mays came in the second inning, when the three-time MVP doubled. He also grounded into a forceout and lined out to left field.“The buzz was incredible,” Rodriguez said. “I just felt a lot of energy in the building, and it was fun.”The Yankees have won eight of 10 after a 3-6 start.Five relievers combined to throw 4 2-3 hitless innings for the Yankees. Chasen Shreve (1-0) earned his first major league win by getting Cuddyer to ground into an inning-ending double play with two on in the fifth.Dellin Betances struck out three in the eighth, and Andrew Miller closed for his seventh save.Niese allowed six runs — four earned — and eight hits in five innings. He had yielded no more than two earned runs in seven consecutive starts dating to last season.“He didn’t locate anything in that second inning, and they made him pay,” Collins said.(MIKE FITZPATRICK, AP Baseball Writer)TweetPinShare0 Shareslast_img read more